The most common cause of an esophageal perforation is injury during a medical procedure. However, the use of flexible instruments has made this problem rare.
The esophagus may also become perforated as the result of:
Gastric reflux with ulceration
Previous surgery on the esophagus
Swallowing a foreign object or caustic chemicals, such as household cleaners, disk batteries, and battery acid
Trauma or injury to the chest and esophagus